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Do the sensory characteristics of high protein drinks increase their satiating efficiency?
DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN36258511
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier
EudraCT number
Public title Do the sensory characteristics of high protein drinks increase their satiating efficiency?
Scientific title
Acronym SATED
Serial number at source MYDRINC2010.1
Study hypothesis Disguised energy consumed in a novel drink will be more efficient in generating satiety when the drink has sensory characteristics that generate satiety relevant expectations. [Satiety Augmentation Through Expectation Delivery (SATED)]
Lay summary Background and study aims?
Worldwide, more and more people are putting on weight, and there is an urgent need to try and understand what leads to over-consumption so we can help provide better health advice and promote the development of new products that can help people control their weight. One intriguing finding is that when people drink a drink which has a high energy content, they donít feel full and eat less afterwards. In contrast, if they have the same energy as a bowl of soup, they are able to adjust the amount they eat later quite accurately. The aim of this study is to try and find out why this is.

Who can participate?
As this study is not aiming to help specific patient groups, potential participants are normal members of the public who are healthy. As the study does require people to eat foods and drinks, you should not take part if you are diabetic, are taking prescription medications, smoke more than 5 cigarettes a day or have a diagnosed eating problem.

What does the study involve?
If you took part, you would come to our test centre on 7 different days. Day 1 would be a screening and familiarization day, and the subsequent 6 days would be the test sessions. On each of these days you would be required to eat nothing and to drink only water from 11pm on the previous night, and would first come for a simple breakfast between 8am and 10am. You would then come back 3 hours later and would be asked to consume a test drink (in the form of a fruit-juice/yoghurt drink) and then 30 minutes later would be served a lunch of pasta followed by ice-cream.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
As the study involves eating foods and drinks made from regular ingredients, the only risks are to people who suffer from diabetes to who have an allergy to any of the ingredients. We will screen all volunteers and if you have diabetes or food allergies you would not be allowed to participate.

Where is the study run from?
University of Sussex.

When does the study taking place?
The study took place between March 2010 and August 2010.

Who is funding the project?
The project is funded by the UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).

Who is the main contact?
Professor Martin Yeomans
Ethics approval University of Sussex Research Governance Committee on 22 January 2010 Ref: MY0110appro
Study design Observational non randomised.
Countries of recruitment United Kingdom
Disease/condition/study domain Treatment of obesity and improved general nutrition.
Participants - inclusion criteria 1. Healthy adults aged 18-55
2. BMI in the range 18-29.9
Participants - exclusion criteria 1. Diagnosed diabetes
2. Current prescription medication other than oral contraceptives
3. Current or previous diagnosis of any eating disorder
4. Smoking more than 5 cigarettes per day
5. Restrained eating, defined as a score of 8 or more on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire restraint scale (Stunkard and Messick, 1985)
6. Allergy or aversion to any of the following:
Anticipated start date 10/02/2010
Anticipated end date 25/06/2010
Status of trial Completed
Patient information material Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet
Target number of participants 36 volunteers, 18 men and 18 women
Interventions 1. The six interventions are novel drinks formulated especially for the study, (low calorie, 78kcal, high calorie 279kcal)
2. All low energy (LE) drinks comprised of a combination of low-fat fromage frais and fruit juice with added flavourings and colours (78kcal)
3. The additional 201kcal in the high energy (HE) versions was achieved by adding maltodextrin (Cargill: 35g) and whey protein isolate (Myprotein, UK: 25g)
4. These drinks constituted the two low sensory versions
5. Sensory quality was adjusted by addition of a non-nutritive thickening agent (tara gum) and satiety-relevant flavours (vanilla and caramel) at two levels to generate medium and high sensory versions of both LE and HE drinks
Primary outcome measure(s) 1. Intake (kcal) at a test lunch consumed 30 minutes after consumption of each test drink
2. The rated experience of appetite before, during and after consumption of each test drink and test meal measured using Visual Analogue Scales
3. Measures will be for hunger and fullness
Secondary outcome measure(s) 1. Evaluations using Visual Analogue Scales of the perceived sensory characteristics of each drink (pleasant, filling, sweet, creamy)
2. Specific awareness of drink energy content obtained through a structured debriefing after the final test session
Sources of funding UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) Diet and Health Research Industry Club (DRINC) grant number BB/H004645/1
Trial website
Publications 1. 2011 results in http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22030223
Contact name Prof  Martin  Yeomans
  Address School of Psychology
Pevensey Building
University of Sussex
  City/town Brighton
  Zip/Postcode BN1 9QH
  Country United Kingdom
  Tel +44 (0) 127 367 8617
  Email martin@sussex.ac.uk
Sponsor University of Sussex (UK)
  Address Sussex House
  City/town Brighton
  Zip/Postcode BN1 9RH
  Country United Kingdom
  Email c.m.mcleod@sussex.ac.uk
Date applied 13/05/2011
Last edited 27/06/2012
Date ISRCTN assigned 18/05/2011
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