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Motivating Active Learning in Physical education (MALP)
DOI 10.1186/ISRCTN07038258
ClinicalTrials.gov identifier
EudraCT number
Public title Motivating Active Learning in Physical education (MALP)
Scientific title Increasing Active Learning time in Physical education: an application of self-determination theory
Acronym MALP
Serial number at source UWS 20321.80786
Study hypothesis Compared with usual practice, Year 8 physical education (PE) lessons in which teachers provide students with choices and explain the relevance of activities will:
1. Increase the percentage of time students spend in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during physical education (PE) lessons
2. Decrease the percentage of PE lesson time that students spend in sedentary behaviour
3. Increase studentsí autonomous motivation during lessons
4. Decrease studentsí controlled motivation during lessons
5. Increase studentsí perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness during lessons
6. Increase studentsí and independent ratersí perceptions of teachersí autonomy supportive behaviour

The influence of the choice and relevance on studentsí physical activity will be mediated by increases in studentsí autonomy, competence, relatedness and autonomous motivation.
Lay summary Lay summary under review 1
Ethics approval Human Research Ethics Committee, University of Western Sydney approved on July 12, 2011, ref: H9171
Study design Cluster randomised controlled trial
Countries of recruitment Australia
Disease/condition/study domain Physical activity
Participants - inclusion criteria 1. Students enrolled in Year 8 Personal Development, Health and Physical Education classes in private secondary schools in metropolitan Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
2. Signed informed consent provided by parent or guardian
3. Signed assent provided by student
Participants - exclusion criteria Students unable to participate in the practical component of Personal Development, Health, and Physical Education classes
Anticipated start date 10/10/2011
Anticipated end date 09/12/2011
Status of trial Completed
Patient information material Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet
Target number of participants 308 students, 16 teachers
Interventions All teachers will meet individually with the lead investigator for 20 minutes. This meeting will take place one to two hours before the follow-up lesson. During this meeting, the investigator will ask the teacher to show him the lesson plan from the baseline class or to describe the baseline lesson activities, if a lesson plan is not available. The investigator will then ask the teacher to devise a lesson for the follow-up class that is similar in structure to the baseline class. Teachers in the control arm will receive no further information from the investigator.

Teachers in experimental arms will receive instruction regarding a motivational teaching strategy to use in the follow-up lesson. In one study arm,teachers will be asked to make statements that explain the rationale behind the activities in class and to make it clear how the activites are relevant to the students. In a second study arm, teachers will be asked to provide the students with opportunities to make choices from options provided by the teacher. In the third study arm, teachers will be asked to provide the students with complete free choice; meaning that equipment will be provided, but no instruction by the teacher will take place. The structure of the lesson plan for the follow-up lesson in this arm of the trial will likely not be similar to the structure of the baseline lesson plan.

During the intervention meeting, the investigator will explain:
1. The name of the motivational teaching strategy
2. The definition
3. The rationale behind its use
4. Four examples of how the strategy could be implemented in a physical education lesson

Teachers will be encouraged to outline and record their implementation plans for the follow-up lesson. The investigator will provide suggestions and feedback on these plans.
Primary outcome measure(s) 1. Percent of lesson time spent in moderate-to-vigorous-physical activity: measured at baseline and follow-up using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer-based monitor
2. Autonomous and controlled motivation: measured at baseline and follow-up using the Situational Motivation Scale
Secondary outcome measure(s) 1. Percent of lesson time spent in sedentary behavior: measured at baseline and follow-up using an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer-based monitor
2. Autonomy, competence, and relatedness: measured at baseline and follow-up using Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scales
3. Autonomy support: measured at baseline and follow-up using the Teacher as Social Context Questionnaire
Sources of funding University of Western Sydney (Australia)
Trial website
Publications 1. 2012 protocol in: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23025261
2. 2013 results in: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24035889
Contact name Dr  Chris  Lonsdale
  Address School of Biomedical and Health Sciences
University of Western Sydney
Locked Bag 1797
  City/town Penrith, NSW
  Zip/Postcode 2751
  Country Australia
  Tel 61435087411
  Email c.lonsdale@uws.edu.au
Sponsor University of Western Sydney (Australia)
  Address Office of Research Services
Locked Bag 1797
  City/town Penrith, NSW
  Zip/Postcode 2751
  Country Australia
  Email C.Charlton@uws.edu.au
  Sponsor website: http://www.uws.edu.au/research/ors
Date applied 01/12/2011
Last edited 18/09/2013
Date ISRCTN assigned 20/02/2012
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